Uptake and Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Waste Stream ab 67.99 € als Taschenbuch: Utilization of algae and crab shell particles as biosorbent Batch and Column studies. Aus dem Bereich: Bücher, Wissenschaft, Technik,
Only within the past decade has the potential of metal biosorption by biomass materials been well established. Waste crab shell and certain metal-binding algae are found in large quantities in the sea. These biomass serve as a basis for newly developed metal biosorption processes foreseen particularly as a very competitive means for the detoxification of metal-bearing industrial effluents. The assessment of the metal-binding capacity of some new biosorbents is discussed. Biosorption isotherm curves, derived from equilibrium batch sorption experiments and dynamic continuous-flow sorption and desorption are used in the evaluation of metal uptake by different biosorbents. Further studies are focusing on the assessment of biosorbent performance for industrial effluents. New methodologies are being developed that are aimed at mathematical modeling of biosorption systems and their effective optimization. This book, therefore aimed for those who are involved in waste water treatment like researchers and industry personals, design engineers, consultancy organization, research institution and also university students pursuing higher degrees in Environmental biotechnology,
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a means of converting nitrogen oxides, also referred to as NOx with the aid of a catalyst into diatomic nitrogen, N2, and water, H2O. A gaseous reductant, typically anhydrous ammonia, aqueous ammonia or urea, is added to a stream of flue or exhaust gas and is absorbed onto a catalyst. Carbon dioxide, CO2 is a reaction product when urea is used as the reductant. Selective catalytic reduction of NOx using ammonia as the reducing agent was patented in the United States by the Englehard Corporation in 1957. Development of SCR technology continued in Japan and the US in the early 1960s with research focusing on less expensive and more durable catalyst agents. The first large scale SCR was installed by the IHI Corporation in 1978.
The industrial effluent stream with toxic dyes are responsible for bad aesthetic and health effects especially mutagenicity, reveals the significance of dye removal process before discharge into the environment. The exploration of various form of adsorbents for the removal of toxic dyes from aqueous solution were discussed. The dyes characteristics and its classification, hazardous effects, conventional treatment methods and removal capacities of different adsorbents were presented. A wide range of adsorbents such as lignocellulosic biomass, activated carbon, industrial byproducts and composite materials towards the removal of dyes from aqueous solution were critically analyzed. The potential of different adsorbents towards the dye removal were examined on the basis of the adsorption capacities. Moreover the instrumental characterization for the dye adsorption studies was depicted. The isotherm and kinetic models, thermodynamic concepts on the adsorption studies were elaborated. Conclusively, vital observations were pointed out on the basis of adsorbents preparation, performance, dye removal mechanisms and proposed few insinuation for further research in the dye adsorption.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Chemical oxygen iodine laser, or COIL, is an infrared chemical laser. As the beam is infrared, it cannot be seen with the naked eye. It is capable of output power scaling up to megawatts in continuous mode. Its output wavelength is 1.315 µm, the wavelength of transition of atomic iodine. The laser is fed with gaseous chlorine, molecular iodine, and an aqueous mixture of hydrogen peroxide and potassium hydroxide. The aqueous peroxide solution undergoes chemical reaction with chlorine, producing heat, potassium chloride, and oxygen in excited state, singlet delta oxygen. Spontaneous transition of excited oxygen to the triplet sigma ground state is forbidden giving the excited oxygen a spontaneous lifetime of about 45 minutes. This allows the singlet delta oxygen to transfers its energy to the iodine molecules injected to the gas stream, they are nearly resonant with the singlet oxygen, so the energy transfer during the collision of the particles is rapid. The excited iodine then undergoes stimulated emission and lases at 1.315 µm in the optical resonator region of the laser.