Uptake and Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Waste Stream ab 67.99 € als Taschenbuch: Utilization of algae and crab shell particles as biosorbent Batch and Column studies. Aus dem Bereich: Bücher, Wissenschaft, Technik,
This book presents a catchment scale case study investigation into the export of organic carbonthrough a river system in comparison with carbon that is produced by vegetation through photosynthesis. The research discusses the use of a hydrological simulation model to analyse organic carbon samples from stream and tributaries. The gross primary productivity of the vegetation cover in the catchment was estimated using a radiation use efficiency model driven by MODIS TERRA data on vegetation greenness and modeledsurface irradiance. The relationship between total organic carbon discharged in-stream and total carbon uptake by plants was assessed using a cross-correlation analysis. The results of the hydrologic modeling approach and terrestrial GPP outcome were compared. This comparison revealed the likely proportion of catchment GPP that contributes to in-stream hydrological flux of organic carbon. Total Organic Carbon Load was 0.45% of GPP. As a result, it can be concluded that the hydrological flux of organic carbon in a forested catchment is a function of gross primary productivity.
Only within the past decade has the potential of metal biosorption by biomass materials been well established. Waste crab shell and certain metal-binding algae are found in large quantities in the sea. These biomass serve as a basis for newly developed metal biosorption processes foreseen particularly as a very competitive means for the detoxification of metal-bearing industrial effluents. The assessment of the metal-binding capacity of some new biosorbents is discussed. Biosorption isotherm curves, derived from equilibrium batch sorption experiments and dynamic continuous-flow sorption and desorption are used in the evaluation of metal uptake by different biosorbents. Further studies are focusing on the assessment of biosorbent performance for industrial effluents. New methodologies are being developed that are aimed at mathematical modeling of biosorption systems and their effective optimization. This book, therefore aimed for those who are involved in waste water treatment like researchers and industry personals, design engineers, consultancy organization, research institution and also university students pursuing higher degrees in Environmental biotechnology,
The fate of two emerging contaminants, perchlorate (ClO4-) and N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) (C2H6N2O), in planted systems, was investigated using phreatophytes grown in hydroponic and soil bioreactors under greenhouse conditions. Plant uptake and rhizodegradation are the two main mechanisms by which plants metabolize perchlorate. Plant uptake is an undesired process that poses ecological risks resulting from phytoaccumulation of some fraction of the perchlorate. Meanwhile, rhizodegradation is a more rapid and favored process involving perchlorate-degrading bacteria utilizing carbon as energy (electron) source to rapidly degrade perchlorate to innocuous chloride. Uptake and Phytovolatilization is the mechanism by which plants metabolize NDMA. The calculated transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) for NDMA of 0.28 suggests that NDMA is passively taken up by plants, and mainly phytovolatilized. In bioreactors dosed with both perchlorate and NDMA, no competitive uptake of NDMA or perchlorate was observed. In the presence of NDMA, a slower rate of rhizodegradation was observed, but still significantly faster than the rate of NDMA uptake.
This book features a special subsection of Nanomedicine, an application of nanotechnology to achieve breakthroughs in healthcare. It exploits the improved and often novel physical, chemical and biological properties of materials only existent at the nanometer scale. As a consequence of small scale, nanosystems in most cases are efficiently uptaken by cells and appear to act at the intracellular level. Nanotechnology has the potential to improve diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of diseases, and includes targeted drug delivery and regenerative medicine, it creates new tools and methods that impact significantly upon existing conservative practices.This volume is a collection of authoritative reviews. In the introductory section we define the field (intracellular delivery). Then, the fundamental routes of nanodelivery devices, cellular uptake, types of delivery devices, particularly in terms of localized cellular delivery, both for small drug molecules, macromolecular drugs and genes, at the academic and applied levels, are covered. The following section is dedicated to enhancing delivery via special targeting motifs followed by the introduction of different types of intracellular nanodelivery devices (e.g. a brief description of their chemistry) and ways of producing these different devices. Finally, we put special emphasis on particular disease states and on other biomedical applications, whilst diagnostic and sensing issues are also included.I ntracellular delivery / therapy is a highly topical which will stir great interest. Intracellular delivery enables much more efficient drug delivery since the impact (on different organelles and sites) is intracellular as the drug is not supplied externally within the blood stream. There is great potential for targeted delivery with improved localized delivery and efficacy.